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文章類型:paper 發布時間:2020-08-05

問題1:誰是英國廣播公司的主要所有者?這是否對委托人主要問題或委托代理人問題有更多貢獻?

1.BBC屬于泰國的貴族家庭。
而且,他們沒有雇用專業經理來經營銀行,而是選擇了其中的某人來經營銀行。由于沒有有效,適當的法規和監督來約束管理層和主要股東的不當行為,因此他們向親戚,朋友,政客提供了不合理的貸款,以換取愛,尊重,金錢和權力。但是,這些貸款被認為是有風險的貸款。
 
2,由于英國廣播公司是由貴族家庭經營的,因此引起了主要原則問題。
當銀行高管向不合資格的借款人進行風險相關的貸款時,這些借款人比自己預期的違約機會要大的多,他們會損害股東的利益。在經濟學上,這稱為委托代理問題,即控制公司的管理層可能會為了自己的利益而使股東蒙受損失。
當大股東向其親戚,自己的公司和政界人士提供貸款而沒有常規檢查他們是否能夠償還貸款時,小股東的利益也受到損害。這就是所謂的主要原理問題。也就是說,當大股東能夠干預公司的運營時,小股東的利益可能會受到損害,因為大股東可能會出于自身利益這樣做。例如,一家擁有谷物公司的啤酒生產商的主要股東可能會為在他自己的公司中購買的谷物原料設定價格,谷物是啤酒的原料。
在這種情況下,英國廣播公司是由貴族家庭擁有的事實,由于以下原因,導致更多的是主要原則問題。首先,管理層本身是所有者,在一定程度上代表了股東的利益。其次,大股東有權選擇管理層,而小股東的建議并不重要,因為監管不力,大股東在公司運營方面有更多發言權。

Question 1: Who was the main owner of BBC? Does this contribute more to principal-principal problems or more to principal-agent problem?

1. BBC belonged to aristocratic families of Thailand.
And they, instead of hiring a professional manager to run the bank, selected someone in them to operate it. As there was no effective and proper regulation and supervision to constrain misbehaviors of the management and major stockholders, they made unreasonable loans to relatives, friends, politicians in exchange for love, respect, money and power. However, such loans were considered to be risky loans.
 
2. Since BBC was run by aristocratic families, principal-principal problems were caused.
When the executives of the bank made risky related lending to unqualified borrowers who had greater chance than expected to default the loans for their own benefits, benefits of stockholders were hurt. And in economics, this is called principal-agent problem, namely, the management who controls the company might cause loss to stockholders for their own benefit.
When major stockholders made loans to their relatives, their own companies and politicians without surveying as routine whether they were able to repay it, minor stockholders’ interests were hurt as well. And this is called principal-principal problem. That is, when major stockholders are able to intervene the operations of a company, minor stockholders’ interests might be harmed because major ones possibly do so for their own benefits. For example, a major stockholder of a beer producer who owns a grain firm might set a price for grains purchased at his own firm, which are raw materials of beer.
In this case, the fact that BBC was owned by aristocratic families led more to principal-principal problem for the following reasons. Firstly, the management itself was the owner, and it represented interests of stockholders to some degree. Secondly, major stockholders had great power to choose the management and minor stockholders’ advice was not important because of poor supervision, major stockholders had more voice in corporate operations. 

問題2:BBC經歷過哪種類型的問題?
正如第一段所述,在1996年,英國廣播公司被發現擁有大量的不良貸款和大量的呆賬和可疑債務。 由于不良貸款和無法收回的債務,BBC無法償還儲戶的錢。 它面臨破產的問題。

Question 2: What type of the problem did BBC experience?

In 1996, BBC was found, as is mentioned in the first paragraph, to have a great amount of nonperforming loans and a large number of bad and doubtful debts. With the nonperforming loans and uncollectible debts, BBC was not able to pay depositors’ money back. And it was faced with the problem of insolvency.

問題3:誰來承擔BBC管理不善的代價?
納稅人在最后支付了價格。
由于破產,財政部接管了英國廣播公司,并任命了一個由五人組成的委員會來管理該銀行(Sherer,1996)。 此外,還提出了一項救助計劃,并希望中央銀行為其不良貸款提供資金,以避免擁擠和造成更嚴重的后果。 根據政府的救助計劃,實際上是最后由納稅人支付了價格。 考慮到東南亞后來的金融衰退部分是由于這一原因造成的,該國和納稅人支付的費用遠遠超過了救助計劃。

Question 3: Who bore the costs of BBC’s mismanagement?

Taxpayers paid the price at the end.
As a result of its insolvency, Finance Ministry took over BBC and appointed a five-member committee to run the bank (Sherer, 1996). Besides, a bailout plan was proposed, and central bank was expected to fund its bad loans to just to avoid crowding out and more severe consequences. With the bailout plan of the government, it was actually the taxpayers that paid the price at the end. Considering that financial recession later in Southeast Asia was caused partly because of it, the country and the taxpayers paid much more than the bailout.

Reference

Sherer, P. (1996). Thailand Official Details Loans of Bangkok Bank of Commerce. Retrieved 4 February 2020, from . 

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